This issue of the Review deals with a rapidly growing branch of finance, climate finance. Under the pressure of recent developments, finance has indeed evolved considerably and quickly in recent years by including the need to take into account the consequences for the climate of various modes of financing. This issue of the Review provides a comprehensive overview of the changes at work in the finance sector and of the latest developments. The main issues and new practices are reviewed, from measuring and controlling risk to the practices of central banks and portfolio managers, including the questions of indicators as well as of corporate and investor behavior.
This issue of the Review proposes assessing financial deregulation, which began in the United States and the United Kingdom roughly forty years ago. It did away with the many regulations that had placed limits on the financial system and aimed to increase the efficiency of the economic system by offering a model based more on market financing. Two sections of this issue are devoted to the differing reasons behind this movement and the forms it took in the main economies, as well as the changes in the behavior of the various economic agents that it led to. A third section deals with the financial crises that followed and the new regulations put in place. Finally, a fourth section is devoted to the specific impacts of these reforms on international capital flows.
The financial systems of the southern and eastern Mediterranean countries are as heterogeneous as are their geopolitical situations. The economies of this vast area are not much interconnected, even in regions that seem more homogeneous, such as the Maghreb. This issue of the Review deals with and analyzes this great diversity. After noting the heterogeneity, it identifies a common feature of these systems—the predominance of bank financing and the great weakness of other financing modes. Finally, it outlines possible improvements, among which bank inclusion is a priority.
The current Fintech wave is based on the convergence of several different types of innovations. The combination of advances in digital technology and in the transmission, storage, and exploitation of data is impacting the various functions of finance to the point of appearing as disruptive innovation. This issue of the Review examines several aspects of the potential consequences of these innovations, in particular for traditional financial intermediaries, the structure of the banking sector, and changes in risk.
This issue of the Revue d'Economie Financière analyzes the state of the cooperative financial system in this beginning of the 21st century and the challenges it faces. The cooperative financial sector still represents a significant share of finance and is, more than ever, confronted with governance issues. How can it remain true to its founding principles while participating in a race to attain a critical mass and therefore profitability ? In order to answer this question, the values, players, governance, and perspectives of cooperative finance are reviewed one by one.
This issue of the Revue d'Economie Financière examines the price of risk, a central notion of finance, from three complementary angles. First, an analysis of its determinants, frequency, perception, aversion, and stability, followed by a price analysis of certain specific risks, such as the risk of dependency or cyber risks. A final section is devoted to the price of synthetic risks, which combine several elementary risks and represent a challenge for analysts.