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The Chinese Banking System: Between State Control and Adaptation to International Standards

Gaëlle Brillant PhD student, Groupe d’économie mondiale (GEM), Sciences po Paris.

Today’s China and its economic governance are facing a lot of questions. Understanding Chinese’s banking system, its structure and its regulatory framework give us the chance to better apprehend the country’s economic system. This system has undergone and is still undergoing major reforms. It was entirely dependent on the policy under the communist regime, and since the opening, the country has gradually adapted to international standards. Its structure has evolved and banking laws are modelled gradually to global agreements. However, the Chinese banking system is still under the domination of the government at all levels. Is the banking system really being adapted to international norms or is it just an illusion? What is the scope of the government to continue its reforms?

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1   Provisional rules governing the management of fixed assets loans; Provisional rules governing the management of working capital loans; Provisional rules governing the management of retail loans; et le Guidelines on project financing.

2   Pour plus d’information, voir le site :

3   Agricultural Bank of China (ABC), People’s Construction Bank of China (PCBC), Bank of China (BoC), Industrial Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) et Bank of Communication (BoCom).

4   Agricultural Development Bank of China (ADBC), The Export Import Bank of China ou China Exim Bank et la China development Bank (CBB)

5   Ces treize banques sont : CITIC Industrial Bank, China Everbright Bank, Huaxia Bank et Minsheng Bank (à actionnariat privé majoritaire), Evergrowing Bank, Guangdong Developpement Bank, China Bohai Bank, Industrial Bank (ancienne Fujian Industrial Bank), China Merchants Bank, Shanghai Pudong Developpment Bank et enfin Shenzhen Developpement Bank. China Merchants Bank, Shanhai Pudong Developpment Bank et Shenzhen Developpement Bank sont cotées en Bourse.

6   Law of the people’s republic of China on commercial banks, 10 mai 1995, article 39. Disponible sur le site :

7   Disponible sur le site : home/jsp/docView.jsp?docID=466.

8   Les 25 principes des accords de Bâle I sont disponibles sur le site :

9   La LoBRS est disponible sur le site :

10   Les méthodes plus sophistiquées (méthodes IRB N internal ratings-based) avec la méthode dite « IRB-fondation » et celle dite « IRB-avancée » impliquent des méthodologies internes et propres à l’établissement financier d’évaluation de cotes ou de notes, afin de peser le risque relatif du crédit.

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