Housing is the consumption first largest expense of households and has been increasing for almost 20 years, along with an improvement in comfort. Housing also represents 28.9% of the total national investment. New constructions which are the most business cycle dependent represent half of the total investment. Housing, basically financed by regular credits, is an essential part in the accumulation of French households wealth, of which it represents almost 2/3 – with substantial inequalities. Finally housing aid increased significantly in the last decade to reach a peak of EUR 44.9bn in 2011, i.e. 2.3% of GDP. However, a drop was recorded in 2012 and 2013. More than half of these aids is provided by the state, in different ways, the highest being personal aid. Bricks and mortar aid is a small minority whereas multiple fiscal aids are the most dynamic with a significant inertia of aids in rental investment.
Let’s hope that these figures will clarify the debates concerning the efficiency of housing policies.