The internationalization of the Renminbi (RMB) has been drawing attention from both political scientists and economists, since the end of 2000s. Available data indicate a strong growth of RMB usage at the international level. This article has two main objectives. First, it aims to describe the qualitative evolutions of the Chinese currency by analysing the changes in the institutional framework of RMB. The second section deals with the ambitions of and obstacles to the Chinese strategy of internationalisation of its currency. For these purposes, this article focuses on the rich literature on this topic. Given that China’s monetary upheaval involves a conflicting process both at the domestic and international levels, it generates tensions with other rival powers, first and foremost the United States. This article examines the willingness and ability of China to overcome hurdles to achieve further the internationalisation of its currency.