Climate change is one of the major challenges central banks are facing, potentially affecting the macroeconomic variables used to underpin their monetary decisions and the channels through which these decisions are transmitted to the real economy. Climate change could affect the policy space central banks have to fulfil their mandate and, owing to increased uncertainty, it could also lead them to consider some of the trade-offs to be faced in a monetary inflation targeting regime. As a result, central banks should not only integrate the effects of climate change into their analyses and models, but also take climate-related risks into account in the development of the instruments used to implement monetary policy.
1 Réalisé en juillet 2020.
2 Selon le FMI, 41 banques centrales opèrent en régime de ciblage d'inflation (FMI, 2019).