The French health system is funded primarily by Social Security, a structuring element of the welfare state, and by health insurers, on a complementary basis. This provides to the French people the best coverage for healthcare expenses through OECD countries. However, this excellent protection system leaves a significant part of the population on the side of the road, in terms of access to healthcare. This leads us to reflect on the respective roles that should be entrusted to the two main funding systems, to promote the adaptation of the health system to the demographic, medical, technological, economic and social challenges for the future. We offer two possible ways, which seem to meet the aspirations of those of our fellow citizens who want to live as free and responsible people involved in a modern and united society.